a project by Andrea Geyer. 2012 - ongoing


291 Gallery (originally known as Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession) was founded by photographer Alfred Stieglitz in 1905. Stieglitz used the gallery to promote art photography as a legitimate form of fine art, as well as early avant-garde works by European modernists such as Rodin, Cézanne, Matisse, Rousseau, and Picasso; and American artists such as Georgia O’Keeffe. The gallery took on an important role in bringing European modernism to the U.S. and securing a place for photography within fine art.

The American Anti-Imperialist League was formed in 1898 in response to U.S. occupation of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands. The group opposed American imperialism claiming it violated American ideals such as self-governance and non-intervention.

Founded in 1936, the American ArtistsCongress (AAC) was formed as part of the Popular Front of the Communist Party USA to fight against fascism, war, and oppression during World War II. With Stuart Davis at the helm, the group took no clear aesthetic position, but rather focused its attention on social art and united with graphic artists to work against the spread of fascism. The group’s efforts such as exhibitions, symposia, and publications, were widely successful at first, but as Stalin rose to power in Russia and effectively divided the American left, the Congress faltered and dissolved in 1942, merging with the Artists Union to form the Artists League of America. Other splinter groups of the organization included the Artists’ Council for Victory and the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors.

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) developed out of the National Civil Liberties Bureau (CLB), which was founded in 1917 by Crystal Eastman and Roger Nash Baldwin. The CLB was formed to protect free speech and anti-war protestors, and evolved to become the ACLU in response to the 1919 and 1920 “Palmer Raids” conducted by Attorney General Mitchell Palmer in which suspected radicals were systematically arrested and deported. Today the ACLU has 500,000 members and continues to defend Constitutional rights across the country.

Founded in 1916 by Margaret Haley in Chicago, The American Federation of Teachers (or AFT) remains a labor union that represents teachers. Unlike the National Education Association (NEA), the AFT excludes school administrator from membership. Under the purview of Margaret Haley, the union saw greater numbers of women in leadership roles. Haley also helped elect Ella Flagg Young as president of the National Education Association in 1910.

The Anti-Fascist movement began in Europe in the 1920s and spread throughout the world, uniting people against fascist ideology.

The Armory Show of 1913, or the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was held in New York’s 69th Regiment Armory, and became the first American modern art exhibition of its size. With over 1250 works by approximately 300 European and American artists, the show represented a turning point in American art and a break from realism. Prominent examples of Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism caused quite a stir within the art establishment, and opened the door for the avant-garde to enter the American consciousness.

Art Front was published by the Artists’ Union and the Artists’ Committee of Action from 1934 to 1937. Led by Hugo Gellert, Stuart Davis, Zoltan Hecht, and Lionel S. Reiss; the monthly magazine published news and opinion about government funding for the arts, reviews of exhibitions and books, essays, and news related to the Artists’ Union.

Founded by Frederick Lessore in 1923 and run by Helen Lessore, the Beaux Arts Gallery in London exhibited work by avant-garde artists such as Christopher Wood, Barbara Hepworth, John Skeaping, Frank Auerbach, and Leon Kossoff. The gallery offered many of these artists their first solo shows, and would become associated with the Kitchen Sink School as well as the School of London. Beaux Arts Gallery closed in 1965.

The Betty Parsons Gallery, located on East 57th Street in Manhattan, opened in 1946 and was pivotal in the development of Abstract Expressionism. The gallery’s first exhibition, Northwest Coast Indian Painting, was curated by Barnett Newman and Tony Smith, and soon the Betty Parsons Gallery became a haven for Abstract Expressionists and other avant-garde artists. The gallery represented what founder Betty Parsons called “her four horsemen of the apocalypse”, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still; and later became a supporter of many gay, lesbian, and bisexual artists such as Agnes Martin, Ellsworth Kelly, Jasper Johns, and Robert Rauschenberg.

BLAST was a literary magazine associated with the Vorticist movement of the early 20th century. Founded and edited by Wyndham Lewis with the help of Ezra Pound, the magazine only published two issues in 1914 and 1915 respectively. Although short-lived, BLAST was influential in the development of modernism, and the first issue included the entire Vorticist manifesto, written by Lewis and signed by Edward Wadsworth, Ezra Pound, William Roberts, Helen Saunders, Lawrence Atkinson, Jessica Dismorr, and Gaudier-Brzeska.

Printed first in Rome, then in Berlin, and finally in New York from November 1921 to January 1924, Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts was created by Harold Loeb and Alfred Kreymborg with the intention of bring the new avant-garde to the United States. In 1922, poet Lola Ridge became the editor and began hosting weekly Broom salons for writers and artists. Contributors to the magazine included Amy Lowell, Wallace Stevens, Picasso, and Man Ray among others.        

Camp Tera served as a model for Eleanor Roosevelt’s “She-She-She Camps”. Established in 1933 in Bear Mountain State Park, NY, Camp Tera (Temporary Emergency Relief Assistance) was intended to provide assistance and training to unemployed women during the Great Depression. The camp was initially met with controversy when it was accused of promoting communism, and problems with red tape and confusion caused the camp to barely get off the ground. However, as women began arriving at the camp—20 per week until the capacity of 200 was met, Camp Tera (later named Camp Jane Addams) was ultimately a success, and contributed to the expansion of the program across the country.

Chantry house was the home of painter Gluck and Edith Shackleton Heald in Steyning, Sussex from 1944 until Gluck’s death in 1978.

Founded in 1903 by Florence Jaffray Harriman, The Colony Club was the first all-women’s club established in New York City, and was based on similar clubs for men. The original clubhouse at 120 Madison Ave was built between 1904 and 1908 and was the site of many suffrage rallies by the Equal Franchise Society of which many club members were a part. In 1916, the Colony Club moved to its new location at 564 Park Ave, and a present has 2,500 members and sponsors numerous programs and events.

The communist party originated from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’ 1848 Manifesto of the Communist Party, and promotes policies toward establishing socioeconomic order through collective ownership of the means of production and the abolishment of money and social class.    

The Constructivist Movement developed out of Russian Futurism after World War I, and was originated by Vladimir Tatlin in 1913. Constructivism rejected emotion and even autonomy in art, and sought to “construct” artwork out of minimal geometric forms. Although the catalyzing work of the movement was Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International (Tatlin’s Tower) (1919-1920), many of the theories of the movement were solidified at the Institute of Artistic Culture between 1920 and 1922. There, The First Working Group of Constructivist met, including Lyubov Popova, Alexander Vesnin, Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, and Aleksei Gan. Wassily Kandinsky was the group’s first chairman, but was deposed due to his “mysticism”. The Constructivist Movement, which lasted until 1940, had a major impact on modernist art and architecture, especially the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements.

In 1890 secretary of the Working Women’s Society, Alice Woodbridge, published a report outlining the poor working conditions for women in the retail trade. In response to this report, The Consumer League of New York City was formed and began advocating for better working conditions in garment and needle trades, sweatshops, laundries, restaurants, textile mills, canneries, and candy factories. Campaigns and reports by the league proved highly influential and brought about widespread reform in the form of legislation. In 1899 Jane Addams and Josephine Lowell chartered The National Consumers League with Florence Kelley as its general secretary.

The Cooperative Mural Workshop supported artists through open workshops, exhibitions, and performances. Founded in 1914 by Katherine Dreier, the workshop was influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement and was attended by artists and performers such as Anne Goldthwaite and Isadora Duncan. Dreier would go on to form Société Anonyme with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray in 1920.

The Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts was founded in 1915 by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, and became the first dance academy in the U.S. with a professional dance company. With locations in Los Angeles and New York, the Denishawn School developed a unique guide to pedagogy and choreography and had a lasting effect on ballet and modern dance. Well-known students include Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Lillian Powell, Jack Cole, and Louise Brooks.

Led by painters Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian, De Stijl, or “the style” (also known as neoplasticism), was a Dutch movement founded in 1917 Amsterdam. Artists and architects of the De Stijl movement sought to create a universal visual language through geometric forms and primary colors. The movement was in part a reaction against the florid Art Deco style, and gave way to the architectural “International Style” of the 1920s and 30s.

One of the first galleries in Greenwich Village, The Downtown Gallery was the gallery of Edith Halpert and Berthe Kroll Goldsmith from 1926 until Halpert’s death in 1970. It showcased and sold American modern art, representing artists such as Stuart Davis, Georgia O’Keeffe, Arthur Dove, Charles Sheeler, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Max Weber, and William and Marguerite Zorach.

The East River Gallery was founded by Marian Guthrie Willard in 1936 at 358 East 57th St. in New York. It closed in 1938 and re-opened as the Neumann-Willard Gallery, later becoming the Willard Gallery in 1945.

The Ferrer Association, named for Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, was an anarchist organization of which Emma Goldman (Mother Earth) was a founding member. Established in New York City, the Association’s headquarters was an inclusive site of political discussion and intellectual debate during the early 20th century. In 1911, the Association formed the Ferrer Modern School, a reformist school dedicated to the humanitarian education of children of all classes. In 1915 the school was moved from New York City to Piscataway, New Jersey, where The Ferrer Colony was formed around it and remained until 1953.  

Written and published by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Forerunner was a monthly magazine that ran from 1909 to 1916 and included short fiction, serialized novels, articles, book reviews, and poems. The magazine stood in stark contrast to the usual women’s magazines of the time, which were largely dedicated to etiquette and matters concerning marriage and the household. Gilman’s writing instead offered alternative narratives for women and sought to further the cause of equal rights. She wrote of the magazine, “[it] does not fill your brain with more facts, but stirs it to new action … It stands for Human Progress, and concentrates upon the Progress of Women only because their present position is the world’s stumbling block”.

Founded in 1927, The Gamboliers were a group of Indianapolis citizens interested in introducing more contemporary art into Indiana museums. The annual membership fee of $25 went toward new purchases facilitated by Mary Quinn Sullivan, and during the group’s five-year existence, it acquired 150 works on paper by European and American artists.

The Harlem Artists Guild (HAG) was an organization of artists that supported emerging young talent within the African-American community, and advocated for a more direct engagement with the community in order to push for change in the culture. HAG was founded in 1935 by artists such as Augusta Savage, Charles Alston, Elba Lightfoot, and Arthur Schomburg, and was partially borne out of their dissatisfaction with the Harmon Foundation. Their efforts led to the establishment of the Harlem Community Center in 1937, which became a model for other community arts centers around the country. 

Founded in 1912 by Marie Jenney Howe, The Heterodoxy Club of New York City was a women’s debate and conversation club in Greenwich Village dedicated to questioning orthodoxy in culture, politics, philosophy, and sexuality. The club met every other Saturday and required of its participants an interest in women’s issues and the production of “creative” work. Many of the women involved in Heterodoxy became part of the radical women’s suffrage movement.     

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House in 1889 in Chicago as a “social settlement”, offering day care, classes, clubs, and activities to the local community. Other influential women reformers joined Hull House including Florence Kelley, Julia Lathrop, Alice Hamilton, and Sophonisba Breckinridge, and the settlement expanded into 13 buildings and served over 2,000 people a week. The efforts of the Hull House women contributed to the development of sociology as a field, and their reform campaigns helped pass a child labor law in Illinois and the creation of the country’s first juvenile court. Many of the women were also involved in the women’s suffrage movement and the peace movement.

The Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) was founded in 1883 by the Art Association of Indianapolis, and was established as a permanent museum in 1906. Suffragette May Wright Sewell together with her husband Theodore organized the first exhibition by the Art Association of Indianapolis at the English Hotel, and the success of the exhibition led to the expansion of the Association into a museum and art school. With a mission aimed at informing and educating the public about visual art, the museum continued its growth and in 1969 changed its name to the Indianapolis Museum of Art. It is now the fifth largest encyclopedic art museum in the country with over 54,000 works in it permanent collection.

The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was founded in 1905 in Chicago by representatives of 43 groups as an alternative to the American Federation of Labor’s exclusive craft unions. It was open to skilled and unskilled industrial workers across the country, and its members were nicknamed “Wobblies”. The IWW quickly gained a reputation for its revolutionary politics and public demonstrations, and it became the only labor organization to oppose U.S. entry into World War I.

The International Exhibition of Modern Art was organized by Katherine Dreier and the Société Anonyme, and was held at the Brooklyn Museum in 1926-1927. Founded in 1920 by Dreier, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamp, the Société Anonyme supported and promoted modern art through events and publications, and sought to demonstrate the vitality of the movement through the International Exhibition of Modern Art. The exhibition included over 300 works by 106 artists, and represented 23 countries and a range of styles. Dreier hoped the collection of works would “reveal, through color and form, larger questions about the metaphysical state of humankind in the modern world” (Kristina Wilson, the The Société Anonyme: Modernism for America, Yale University Press).

The International LadiesGarment Workers Union (or ILGWU) was one of the first primarily female unions in the U.S., and was founded in 1900 in order to improve working conditions in the ladies’ garment industry. Delegates from local unions in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Newark were present at the founding in order to ensure reform on a national level. Most members of the union were Jewish immigrants working in unsafe and unsanitary sweatshops. A series of strikes organized by the ILGWU successfully achieved improvements in working conditions and wages and it later became a lead player in the labor movement of the 1920s and 30s.

The ‘Internationale Kunstausstellung des Sonderbunds Westdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Künstler’ was a groundbreaking exhibition that opened in Cologne in 1912. Featuring art from European modernist movements such as Expressionism, The Brücke, The Blauer Reiter, Fauvism, and Cubism; the Sonderbund Exhibition was the first of its kind, displaying works in one row on white walls rather than in the crowded and often ornate salon style. This new method of display became the model for future exhibitions of modern art, including the Armory Show in 1913.       

Founded in 1876 and named for its benefactor, philanthropist and entrepreneur Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University (or JHU) was the first American private research university and is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The university’s first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, instituted a groundbreaking approach to higher education, merging teaching and research and leading the charge to revolutionize higher education.

Following the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920, Carrie Chapman Catt formed the League of Women Voters in order to help women exercise their newly granted right to vote. Although initially only open to female members, the LWV began including men in 1973. The League of Women Voters remains an important non-partisan political organization, and supports many progressive policy positions such as abortion rights, universal health care, and gun control among others. 

The Little Red School was New York City’s first progressive school, founded in 1921 by educator Elisabeth Irwin. The school tested education reformer John Dewey’s early 20th century principles, and was created as an alternative public elementary school. During the Great Depression, the Public Education Association halted its funding of the school, and parents offered their own resources to keep the school afloat. It then became the Little Red School House, a fully independent elementary school, and in 1941 expanded to include Elisabeth Irwin High School. The Little Red School House and Elisabeth Irwin High School (LREI) still operate today.

Founded by Margaret Anderson in 1914, The Little Review was a journal for experimental art and writing. Its contents included early Dada and surrealist work, and was well known for its serialization of James Joyce’s Ulysses. The magazine’s motto which later became part of its title was, “Making No Compromise with the Public Taste”. Anderson enlisted the help of co-editors Jane Heap and later, Ezra Pound, and the magazine became an important player in the modernist movement until its final issue in 1929.

The London Group was formed when the Camden Town Group merged with the English Cubists (later Vorticists) in 1913 in response to the Royal Academy of Art’s monopoly on exhibition opportunities in London. Wyndham Lewis, Ethel Sands, Anna Hope Hudson, Walter Sickert, and Jacob Epstein were among the founding members, and the group organized exhibitions for artists throughout Europe, offering artists the chance to choose the work they wanted to show. Remarkably, the group survived throughout the war (although the Vorticist movement did not), and is now among the oldest standing artist-led organizations in the world. The London Group celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2013.

Located in Paris, France and housed in a 12th century palace, the Louvre is the world’s largest museum with over 35,000 objects in over 60,600 square meters. The structure was built in 1190 when Phillipe Auguste built a fortified wall around Paris, and constructed the Louvre fortress for added protection. Over the years, the fortress was expanded to form the Louvre Palace, and in 1682 when Louis XIV moved his residence to the Palace of Versailles, the Louvre became the home of the royal collection, which included Greek and Roman sculpture. Throughout the 17th century, the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture held salons in the Louvre, and during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decided to maintain the palace as a museum. It officially opened in 1793 and the collection increased over the years to encompass works from prehistory to the 21st century.

Owned by Clara S. Davidge and located at 305 Madison Ave, the Madison Gallery exhibited work at the 1913 Armory Show, representing some of the founding members of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) including Jerome Myers, Elmer MacRaw, and Walt Kuhn.

The Metropolitan Opera Guild was founded in 1935 by retired actress and first female member of the Met’s board of directors, Eleanor Robson Belmont, as a membership organization aimed at democratizing the opera. With the opera’s funding threatened by the Great Depression, Belmont proposed the Guild as a means of fundraising at a grassroots level, rather than relying on one wealthy patron. In its first year, the Guild gained more than 2,000 members, and as membership grew throughout the 1930s and beyond, the Metropolitan Opera was able to fund and even expand its programming using Belmont’s multi-source private funding model, which has since been adopted by many other cultural institutions.  

Mother Earth was an anarchist journal edited by Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. The monthly magazine published articles on topics such as labor, education, women’s emancipation, and sexual freedom. The publication ultimately came under fire when it openly opposed US involvement in World War I, under in 1917, Goldman and Berkman were found guilty of violating the Espionage Act and were deported.

The Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boston was founded in 1870, and is the nation’s fourth largest museum with over 450,000 works of art and one million visitors a year. In 1876, artist Francis Davis Millet helped the museum establish its Art School, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and it is now affiliated with Tufts University’s School of Arts and Sciences.

In 1875, a group of students from the National Academy of Design created the Art Students League of New York in response to the National Academy of Design’s gap in programming as well as a desire for a more flexible and varied education. In the coming years, the League’s membership continued to grow, and it soon became the only independent art school in the country, using membership fees to fund its classes. Many of the League’s founding members were women, and as the school expanded, it attracted more women artists, many of whom took on leadership roles in the organization. With leaders and teachers such as Wilhelmina Weber Furlong, Alice Van Vechten Brown, and Edith Dimock at the helm, the League became a major player in the modernist movement, educating many of the 20th century’s most prominent artists.    

The National Americanization Committee (or NAC) was part of the Americanization movement of the 1910s. Formed in 1915 and directed by social reformer Frances Kellor, the NAC sought to help assimilate new immigrants into American culture in order to cut down on work accidents and acquaint them with American industrial ideals.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington, and W.E.B. Du Bois in response to the epidemic of racism and violence at the turn of the century. The grassroots-based organization remains the nation’s oldest and largest, and proved instrumental in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s and helped to secure victories such as de-segregation and the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1964, and 1968, as well as the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Crisis magazine, founded by Du Bois, became the official publication of the NAACP, and helped publish some of the most influential voices of the Harlem Renaissance. Today, both the organization and publication maintain their importance in the continuing struggle for civil rights.

Founded by Mary McLeod Bethune in 1935, the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) sought to improve the quality of life and opportunities available to African American women and allow them organized platform for social justice and human rights reform. Delegates from fourteen African American groups were present at the first meeting of the NCNW, and today more than four million women are associated with the extensive umbrella organization.

The National Womens Party (or NWP) was the result of a merger between the 1916 Congressional Union’s Women’s Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Led by Alice Paul, the organization withdrew its support from all political parties who did not support women’s suffrage. Paul deployed a strategy of sustained nonviolent protest, which included suffrage marches, songs, pickets, and hunger strikes. Through their persistent, nonviolent tactics, the NWP gained widespread public support for the cause of women’s suffrage, and their tireless work culminated in the 1920 ratification of the 19th amendment, granting women the right to vote. However, Paul continued to pursue full equality for women, and wrote the 1923 Equal Rights Ammendment (ERA), which was passed by Congress in 1972 but never ratified.

Founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869, The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) sought women’s enfranchisement through a federal constitutional amendment. With a national agenda in mind, the organization held its conventions in Washington D.C. and established its headquarters in New York City. By contrast, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) led by Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and Julia Howe; employed a states-based approach in order to secure women the right to vote, holding its conventions in various cities across the U.S. In 1890, the two groups finally merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), and following further campaigns by the now-united group, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1920.

Established in 1916 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Needle and Bobbin Club was created for people interested in fabrics such as lace, tapestry, embroidery, and weaving. Spearheaded by Frances Morris, then assistant curator of the Met’s textile collection, the Club was made up of New York’s high society textile collectors and enthusiasts, and is thought to have had over two hundred members at one time.

In 1922 when left-wing journal The Liberator was taken over by the American Communist Party, The New Masses magazine was born and became highly influential throughout the 1920s and 30s. The Great Depression saw a resurgence of interest in left-wing sentiment in America, and The New Masses offered a Marxist point of view through writing and art from contributors such as Dorothy Parker, Upton Sinclair, William Carlos Williams, Josephine Herbst, and Langston Hughes to name a few.

Founded in 1914 and backed by Dorothy Payne Whitney, The New Republic is a liberal/progressive magazine credited with helping transform American liberalism in favor of governmental interventionism. During then 20th century the magazine played an important role in the changing landscape of liberal and progressive political thought, but after a move towards conservativism in the 1980s, and a series of upheavals in its management, The New Republic suspended its December 2014 edition and has recently been sold. 

The New School is a New York private research university founded in 1919 by a group of progressive educators who had been censured by Columbia University for speaking out against U.S. entry into World War I. Together this group of professors formed a school dedicated to the free exchange of ideas and called it The New School for Social Research. During the second World War, The New School became the home of the University in Exile, which sponsored scholars and their families who had fled from Nazi Germany. Today, The New School houses institutes, centers, and schools such as the Vera List Center for Art and Politics, the India China Institute, the Observatory on Latin American, the Center for New York City Affairs, the Hannah Arendt Center, and Parsons School of Design.

The New York Factory Investigating Commission was created in response to the Triangle Shirtwaist fire of 1911 in an effort to investigate and correct rampant instances of fire hazards, unsanitary conditions, occupational diseases, and other factory conditions. Frances Perkins played an active role in the investigation and was later appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency. She would become the first woman to hold a U.S. cabinet position.

The New York Public Library (NYPL) is the largest public library system in the U.S. with 88 branches and four scholarly research centers. Founded in 1895 when the Astor and Lenox libraries were merged to form “The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations”, the NYPL incorporated the New York Free Circulating Library in 1901 and distributed its resources among 65 branch libraries thanks to a donation from Andrew Carnegie. Today the library system extends throughout The Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island, and serves more than 17 million patrons a year.

The New York Society of Women Artists (NYSWA) was founded in 1925 and consisted of 23 avant-garde women artists some of whom had participated in the Armory Show, the Whitney Studio Club, and the Society of Independent Artists. The NYSWA still exists today and has 46 active members.

Founded in 1851 by Henry Jarvis Raymond, The New York Times is still regarded as the national “newspaper of record” (Encyclopedia Britannica). The daily paper adopted the slogan, “All the News That’s Fit to Print” in 1897 in reference to the sensationalist and inaccurate reporting in competing papers. Throughout its history, The New York Times has enjoyed international prestige, and has won 117 Pulitzer Prizes.

The New York Woman Suffrage Party, or simply the Woman Suffrage Party (WSP), was founded in 1909 at the Convention of Disenfranchised Women in Carnegie Hall. Led by Carrie Chapman Catt, the WSP spent the next decade fighting for women’s suffrage at the local, state, and national level. With 804 delegates in total and 200 alternates, the WSP was “the largest delegate suffrage body ever assembled in New York State” (Buhle and Buhle, 2005, p. 401), and by 1915 it had reached a hundred thousand members. The organization worked to gain support of the public through parades, concerts, and door-to-door and telephone campaigns. Once the women’s vote was achieved, the group helped women exercise their new right.    

In response to being denied admittance to hotels in Buffalo, New York, The Niagra Movement began as a gathering of 29 individuals in Niagra Falls, and was organized by W.E.B DuBois and William Monroe Trotter in 1905. The group opposed Booker T. Washington’s philosophy of “Accommodationism” in which African Americans were discouraged from protesting in the interest of conciliation. For the next three years, The Niagra Movement powerfully advocated for equal rights and an end to segregation, but splintered off due to an ongoing dispute between Trotter and DuBois over whether or not to include women. After the Springfield, Illinois race riot of 1908, the remaining members of the movement were subsumed into the newly-formed NAACP in an effort to present a united front for civil rights.

Created by Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to those who have “done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses” (The Oxford Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History). The prize has been awarded to 129 Nobel Laureates since 1901, and is awarded annually. The Peace Prize was the last of five prize categories Nobel stipulated in his will, and it is believed his friendship with activist Bertha von Suttner influenced the decision to include it. She would become the first female recipient in 1905.

Formed during a YMCA conference in 1907, the North American Civic League for Immigrants (NACL) was tasked with the protection and education of new immigrants. They began their investigative efforts in Boston, and in 1910 social reformer Frances Kellor became the managing director of the New York Committee of the National American Civic League for Immigrants. Going forward, their five-point plan included assimilation, education, distribution, naturalization, and protection.

Named for the month of the Weimar Revolution following World War I, Novermbergruppe was a group of German artists founded in 1918 by Max Pechstein and César Klein. The group hoped to unify the artist and the worker through art, architecture, crafts, and city planning, and sponsored a series of events, lectures, and concerts throughout the 1920s in pursuit of this goal. Novermbergruppe established the Workers’ Council for Art in 1919, and found support among the middle classes as well as similar German organizations such as the Weimar Bauhaus.

The Orphism Art Movement promoted abstraction practiced by painters such as Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, and František Kupka. It referred to Greek mythological figure, Orpheus, whom the Symbolists believed to be the ideal artist in that he was able to combine sensuous experiences through his music and poetry. Apollinaire valued anti-figurative painting that could match the “purity” of music, and those associated with the Orphic movement often utilized bright colors and round forms influenced by French chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul’s “law of simultaneous contrast of colors”.

The 1913 Paterson Silk Strike was a six-month work stoppage in which silk workers, organizers from the IWW, and Greenwich Village artists came together to demand an eight-hour day and better wages and conditions at the silk mills in Paterson, New Jersey. 1,850 strikers were arrested during the course of the strike, among them IWW leaders William Dudley Haywood and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. The strike ultimately failed but became known for the Paterson Strike Pageant at Madison Square Garden, which was a large-scale public performance benefiting and featuring many of the strikers themselves.

The Paterson Strike Pageant: Organized by John Reed on the suggestion of arts patron Mabel Dodge, The Paterson Strike Pageant at Madison Square Garden was a large-scale public performance benefiting the 1913 Paterson silk strike. The strikers themselves performed in the pageant after parading down Fifth Avenue and taking the Garden stage. With sets painted by John Sloan, and the program cover designed by Robert Edmond Jones, The Paterson Strike Pageant was a spectacular display of modernist ideals and the new social art that was beginning to emerge.

The Phillips Collection was founded in 1921 as the Phillips Memorial Gallery by Duncan Phillips and his wife, artist Marjorie Acker. Originally created out of grief over his father’s sudden passing, the Washington D.C. art museum became the first American museum of modern art, and contained works by such artists as Edgar Degas, Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Klee, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, and Pablo Picasso. In addition, Phillips later acquired works by Mark Rothko, John Marin, and Georgia O’Keeffe, among other influential modern artists.

Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), or Planned Parenthood, was founded in 1916 when Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the nation in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. Sanger, her sister Ethel Byrne, and their friend Fania Mindell were subsequently arrested for disseminating information about birth control, and convicted under the Comstock Act. Their trials, however, only served to garner more support for their cause, and upon their appeals, the judge modified the law, allowing physician-prescribed birth control. In 1923, Sanger founded the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau for the study of birth control practices and effectiveness, and incorporated the American Birth Control League, forming the PPFA. Planned Parenthood continues to operate today and is the single largest provider of reproductive health services.

The Plato Club was Hull House’s philosophy discussion group led by Julia C. Lathrop who later became the first woman to head a United States federal bureau.

Founded by industrialist Charles Pratt in 1887, Pratt Institute is a private, non-profit institution of higher learning created to educate working class artisans at an affordable price. Located near Pratt’s home in the Clinton Hill neighborhood of Brooklyn, the Institute started with only 12 students and within a year had enrolled 1,000. With a current enrollment of over 4,000 students spread out over five schools, Pratt has become one of the nation’s premier colleges for architecture, interior design, and industrial design.

Emerging after World War I and popular during the 1920s and 30s, Precisionism was the first modern-art movement to originate in America. Although never formally organized into a group, the Precisionists came to be associated with simplified shapes and forms and an emphasis on urban an industrial landscapes involving skyscrapers, bridges, and factories. Their style has also been known as “Cubist-Realism” and painters working in the style were sometimes called the “Immaculates”.

Roycroft was a reformist community in East Aurora, New York, and became an important part of the Arts and Crafts Movement of the early 20th century. Founded by former soap-maker Elbert Hubbard in 1895 along with his wife, noted suffragist and writer, Alice Moore Hubbard, the utopian community attracted craftspeople of all kinds with the goal of creating beautiful objects for use in everyday life. Members of the community were called “Roycrofters” and the group was often referred to as the “Roycroft Movement”. With their own printing press on site, the group was able to publish and distribute their philosophy in the form of a magazine called “The Philistine”. The group eventually declined after the Hubbards died in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915.

The Rope was an all-women study group for the study of G. I. Gurdjieff’s philosophy taught by Gurdjieff himself. It was organized by prominent publisher and pupil of Gurdjieff, Jane Heap, and met throughout the 30s and 40s in Paris. Members of the group were primarily lesbian writers and included Margaret Anderson, Solita Solano, and Katheryn Hulme.

Founder of Russian Suprematism, Kazimir Malevich, looked to Suprematism to surpass all other art of the past, and hoped it would accomplish, “supremacy of pure feeling or perception in the pictorial arts”. Suprematist art was influenced by literary criticism and interested in complete abstraction and the deconstruction of language. The work often featured geometric forms and a limited range of colors, and was an important influence on Constructivism.           

She-She-She Camps were camps and residential worker schools aimed at helping young, jobless women. The camps were Eleanor Roosevelt’s response to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (or CCC), which provided jobs for unemployed men in forestry, flood control, and beautification projects across the country. Although the CCC was a highly celebrated New Deal success, the “She-She-She Camps” (initially a derisive term for the project) were met with significantly less enthusiasm. However, with the help of Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, Eleanor Roosevelt was able to establish Camp Tera, which became a successful model for other women’s jobless camps nationwide. By 1936 there were 90 residential camps, eventually serving over 8,500 women.

The oldest political movement in Ireland, Sinn Féin (Irish Gaelic for “we ourselves”) was founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905 in order to “establish in Ireland’s capital a national legislature endowed with the moral authority of the Irish nation” (MacDoncha, 2005). Many Sinn Féin members participated in the Easter Rising of 1916, which solidified support for the establishment of an Irish Republic. After winning 73 of the 105 Irish parliamentary seats in the 1918 election, the newly elected MPs formed their own parliament in Ireland, Dáil Éireann. Multiple rifts in the party have led to its becoming the political wing of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and after a split in 1969 the party divided into Official Sinn Féin (or The Workers’ Party of Ireland), and Provisional Sinn Féin.   

The Six Point Group was a British feminist group established by Lady Rhondda in 1921 in order to campaign for legislation in six areas. The group’s aims were as follows: 1) Satisfactory legislation on child assault, 2) Satisfactory legislation for the widowed mother, 3) Satisfactory legislation for the unmarried mother and her child, 4) Equal rights of guardianship for married parents, 5) Equal pay for teachers, 6) Equal opportunities for men and women in the civil service. These aims were later simplified to become the six point of equality for women: political, occupational, moral, social, economic, and legal; and the group worked throughout the 1920s to ensure the League of Nation’s passage of an Equal Rights Treaty. The Six Point Group disseminated its ideas through its journal, Time and Tide, and during the 1930s successfully established the Income Tax Reform Council and the Married Women’s Association. In the 1940s, the group became active in the Equal Compensation Campaign, and continued fighting for women’s rights throughout the 1960s and into the 70s.

Founded in 1966 by Mary Livingston Ripley, The Smithsonian Institutions Womens Committee (SWC) is a volunteer organization that supports the Smithsonian through grants and endowments. The SWC began holding its annual craft show in 1983 in response to the lack of craft exhibitions in Washington D.C., and it is now considered the nation’s leading juried show of American crafts.

The Socialist Party of America was formed in 1901 when the Social Democratic Party of America merged with the Socialist Labor Party. Headed by Eugene V. Debs, the party garnered support from unionists, social reformers, farmers, and immigrants alike. The socialist publication, Appeal of Reason, had over 700,000 subscribers, and when Debs took his opposition to World War I to the presidential race, he received 900,000 voters—six percent of the votes cast that year. After the 1917 October Revolution in Russia, many members left for the Communist Party, and the party was further weakened by the popularity of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. By 1956, the Socialist party had run its last presidential candidate.

Founded in 1920 by Katherine Dreier, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamp, the Société Anonyme, Inc. supported and promoted modern art through events, lectures, and publications, and held the International Exhibition of Modern Art at the Brooklyn Museum in 1926. The name, chosen by Man Ray who had a limited understanding of French, translates to “Corporation” in English, and when Duchamp later added the “Inc.” became “Corporation, Inc.”. Throughout the group’s 30-year tenure it hosted 80 exhibitions, and its collection was donated to the Yale University Art Gallery in 1941.

Founded in 1916, the Society of Independent Artists was a New York-based organization modeled after the French Société des Artistes Indépendants. The Society held its first exhibition in 1917 at Grand Central Palace, with the goal of providing exhibition opportunities to all artists regardless of their professional background or success. Work was hung in alphabetical order by last name, and there was no jury or prize but rather the artists and public were invited to judge the work for themselves. Although the Society was committed to equal opportunity for all artists, Marcel Duchamp’s infamous Fountain was excluded from the show, and he subsequently resigned from the Society. The Society held its last exhibition in 1944.

Stone Cottage was Eleanor Roosevelt’s home at the Roosevelt family estate in Hyde Park, New York. Along with her close friends from the Democratic State Committee, Nancy Cook, Caroline O’Day, and Marion Dickerman; Roosevelt established Val-Kill Industries—an experimental furniture factory aimed at providing supplemental income to agricultural workers. Today, Stone Cottage and the Val-Kill factory are managed by the National Park Service, and are the site of the Eleanor Roosevelt Center at Val-Kill.

Surrealism was a literary movement that developed into an intellectual, political, and artistic movement. The movement officially came to prominence in 1924 Paris after André Breton published his Manifesto of Surrealism, and he along with his contemporaries looked to Sigmund Freud’s dream studies and psychological investigations to develop fantastical and often symbolic imagery. In 1927, René Magritte became a leading figure in the burgeoning visual Surrealist movement and in the 1930s, Salvador Dalí’s illusionistic Surrealism came to the fore. During the second World War, the Surrealists relocated to New York and found a home at Peggy Guggenheim’s gallery, Art of This Century and the Julien Levy Gallery.

Built by Prussian King Frederick II in memory of his sister, Markgravine Wilhelmine of Beyreuth, the Temple of Friendship (Freundschaftstempel in German) is a round temple located in Sanssouci Park in Potsdam. The temple was constructed between 1768 and 1770 by Carl von Gontard.

Founded by Margaret, Lady Rhondda in 1920, Time and Tide was a British weekly magazine dedicated to literature as well as left-wing and feminist politics. Helen Archdale was the publication’s first editor, followed by Lady Rhondda who maintained that position for the rest of her life. In the beginning, Time and Tide acted as a platform for the feminist Six Point Group, but as the magazine progressed, it became more right-leaning along with its founder and editor. Emma Goldman, D.H. Lawrence, C.S. Lewis, George Orwell, and Virginia Woolf were all published in the periodical, as well as many more important writers and thinkers of the time.

The UCL Slade School of Fine Art was founded in 1871 and named for benefactor Felix Slade, who imagined a fine arts school inside a liberal arts university. The Slade is the art school of University College London and is considered the UK’s premier art and design school.

Vorticism was a movement of British art and poetry founded in 1914 London, which was inspired by Cubism and rejected figurative and representational work in favor of geometric abstraction. Vorticism has been compared to Futurism in its mechanic imagery and emphasis on dynamism, although Vorticism’s founder Wyndham Lewis rejected Futurism and looked to Vorticism as an alternative to Cubism, Futurism, and Expressionism. The movement dissolved at the onset of World War I and was unable to be revived thereafter.

The Washington Post was founded by Stilson Hutchins in 1977 and is the country’s oldest surviving newspaper. In 1880, the Post published its first Sunday edition, becoming Washington D.C.’s first newspaper to publish seven days a week. Notable contributors to the Post at this time include Joseph Pulitzer and a young Theodore Roosevelt. The paper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes, 18 Nieman Fellowships, and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards.

The Whitney Studio was the salon and studio of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. Opened in 1914 as a place for the arts patron and sculptor to not only create her work, but also to show and collect works by unrecognized artists, The Whitney Studio would become the pre-cursor to The Whitney Museum of American Art, which she opened in 1931.

The Woman Rebel was Margaret Sanger’s anarchist magazine, which she edited and published in 1914. The magazine’s slogan was “No Gods, No Masters”, and was aimed at working-class women in order to help educate and empower them. Through the journal Sanger spread the message that every woman had the right to be “absolute mistress of her own body”, and soon after she began publishing information about birth control she was arrested for violating the Comstock Law. Although The Woman Rebel only published eight issues, it was instrumental in the growing birth control movement that eventually led to its legalization in 1965.

The Womens Committee at the Corcoran Gallery of Art was founded in 1952-53 by Mrs. John Rockwood in order to encourage the gallery’s growth. The committee has grown from 21 members to 80 members and meets monthly to discuss gallery programming and events.

The Womens Division of the New York State Democratic Committee was formed in order to urge newly enfranchised women to toward Democratic candidates. In 1922 Nancy Cook invited Eleanor Roosevelt to speak at a meeting of the Division, and thus began her long friendship with Cook and dedication to the group. The Division’s support of FDR’s policies and New Deal legislations became crucial to his success in the late 20s and 30s, and Division member Caroline O’Day would become one of the most important female members of Congress during that time.

On January 9-10, 1915, a convention of over 3,000 women met at the Willard Hotel in Washington D.C. to discuss the recent outbreak of World War I. From this convention, the Womans Peace Party was born, and Jane Addams of Hull-House was elected President of the new organization. The WPP established its headquarters in Chicago, Addam’s home city, and took up its mission of protesting the war through direct-action protests and demonstrations. One such tactic was their production of Euripides’ Trojan Women, which was performed in cities around the country. The group later became part of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace, whose name was later changed to the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.

The Womens Trade Union League (WTUL) was formed in 1903 in Boston when the American Federation of Labor refused to include women in its ranks. Mary Kenney O’Sullivan, Leonora O’Reilly, Lillian Wald, and Jane Addams were among the founders of the WTUL, and it became the first national organized labor union for women workers. The WTUL saw many successes throughout its history, including the establishment of the minimum wage, the end of child labor and women’s night work, and the creation of the eight-hour work day—all of which came to fruition under the leadership of Margaret Dreier Robins from 1907 to 1922. In 1950, the organization was dissolved only after it had achieved widespread impact on the labor reform movement of the early 20th century.

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